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became a clerk at old Elizabeth furnace of Bedford county, which he left a year later, to assist his brother on the canal, and then to teach a winter term of school. Life now opened actively before him, and he successively served as transportation clerk, school-teacher, partner with his brother in the coal business, at No. 6, in Blair county, bookkeeper and store manager at Ashland furnace, assistant manager under Dr. Shoenberger at Cambria furnace, and bookkeeper for three years at Somerset furnace. He then bought a boat on the Union canal, a year later sold it and engaged as bookkeeper with the Conemaugh furnace company, which position he resigned in 1852, to accept a similar position with Robert Lemon & Co., a coal, lumber and commission firm of Hollidaysburg, Blair county. Four years later he left Hollidaysburg, and accepted the superintendency of the Powell, Saxton & company's coal mines, at Broad Top, this State. Being a practical miner, and having privately studied civil engineering early in life, under a competent instructor, Mr. McHugh was so well qualified for his place that he held this position through all the many changes of the firm from 1856 up to 1888. New blood was then infused into the company, and it was reorganized as the Sterling Coal company, with Mr. McHugh as a member, and the general manager. Soon after this he came to Hastings, and opened up the mines whose location he had been sent a few years back to examine.
    On August 8, 1855, Mr. McHugh married Catherine Louise Savage, of Clearfield county. To their union have been born six children: Miles L., now deceased; Eber, an attorney-at-law, of West Superior, Wisconsin; Mary Ellen; Charles, foreman of the West Superior Telegram, of Wisconsin; and Tho-
mas, who owns and operates the Hastings Electric Plant.
    Edward McHugh is a Democrat in politics, and a member of the Catholic church. His life has been one of varied business interest, and illustrates the value of persistent effort and improved opportunity to him who would now win in this country, where competition is not only keen but enduring. Mr. McHugh has evinced business capacity of a high order, and his present management of his company's large plant is indicative of future enlargement and prosperity.

FRANCIS IVORY, a farmer of Clearfield township, this county, and a gallant soldier in the late Civil War, is a son of Patrick and Ellen (Connell) Ivory, and was born in Blair county, Pennsylvania, in 1839.
    Patrick Ivory, on reaching maturity, located on a farm in Blair county, and engaged in agriculture. He removed to Carroll township, this county, and from there located in Clearfield township, where he resided the remainder of his life. He was a devout member of the Catholic church, and in politics was identified with the Democratic party. He married Miss Ellen Connell, and their marriage resulted in the birth of eleven children, seven sons and four daughters; Matthew, a farmer of Clearfield township; Rosanna, deceased; John, deceased; William, located in Altoona; Rebecca, deceased; James, deceased; James, a farmer in Allegheny township, this county; Francis; Ellen, the wife of Charles McMullen, of Gallitzin township, this county; and Catharine, deceased.
    Francis Ivory was educated in the common schools of this county, and, being reared a farmer boy, followed farming all his life. In 1886 he purchased the farm on which he

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